Going beyond our limits

The Fédération Cynologique Internationale is a truly global organisation and, as well as working towards a collective goal, it operates as a body where people can meet with the shared aim of exchanging ideas and experiences but without paying the slightest attention to their cultural, geographical, political or religious differences. We come together under the banner of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale to protect all dogs equally, no matter where they come from or where on Earth they live.

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Rafael de Santiago
President of the FCI
On the path of cynology from the middle ages to 1911 (part 6/7)

Read the whole article and more in the FCI Centenary Book www.fci.be/onlinecatalogue.aspx

Raymond TRIQUET, France
Senior « Maître de Conférence » at the University of Lille III,
former President of the FCI Standards Commission
Translation: Jennifer Mulholland


First show in Holland restricted to non-sporting dogs, was organized in Scheveningen with 295 entries.

  • April 1st: creation of the “Netherlands Society of Breeders and Fanciers of Purebred dogs” (Nederlandsche Vereeniging van Fokkers en Liefhebbers van Rashonden) which, in 1895, became “The Dutch kennel Club” (De koninklijke Nederlandse Kennel Club Cynophilia). It was often referred to as the “Cynophilia Club”. The first president was Count Henry de BYLANDT (Graaf van Bylandt).
  • Eduard Karel KORTHALs (1851-1896), a Dutchman living in Biebesheim (Germany) and creator of the Griffon which later carried his name, met Baron GINGINGS. Baron GINGINGS, president of the German “Griffon Club” and future founder of the famous “Kartell” in 1906 with Ernst VON OTTO, was born in the Swiss Jura region on July 26, 1859. In 1926 VON OTTO referred to GINGINGS as the” last great lord of Germany” (PREUGSCHAT). His real name was Louis Henri Albert DE GINGINGS ET D’ECLEPENS.
Baron Albert de Gingins, Chasse et Pêche, 29ème année, nr 17, 21 janvier 1911, p.360

The Griffon-Korthals standard was published in 1904 in de BYLANDT’s book (Rauhhaariger Griffon-Vorstehhund. Wire-haired pointing Griffon). At that time there was a “Griffon Club” in Germany whose president was Baron VON GINGINGS from Nyon (Switzerland), a Belgian Griffon Club whose honorary president was Baron Emmanuel COPPENS D’EECKENBRUGGE and a French Wire-haired Griffon Club whose honrary president was……Baron VON GINGINGS. A photo shows three Griffons belonging to Baron GINGINGS and four belonging to E.K. KORTALS from Biebesheim. Two of these dogs had French names: “Partout” and “Nitouche”. Nothing could be more international and more F.C.I. ahead of time. For the benefit of those accustomed to F.C.I. General Assemblies, Baron Jean-Pierre COPPENS D’EECKENBRUGGE, General secretary of the Royal Saint-Hubert Society, deceased in 2008, was a three times removed cousin of Baron Emmanuel (1859-1930).


September 29th., the Belgian Shepherd Club was founded in Belgium. The French Belgian Shepherd Club was not founded until August 8th., 1912.

  • June, twenty fanciers, amongst whom Doctor ARBEL, founded the French Pointer Club.

1891 - 1894

Publication in Brussels of Races de chiens (Dog breeds) by Ad. REUL.

  • CORNEVIN, Professor at the Veterinary School of Lyon (France), published his Traité de zootechnie générale (Treaty of Zootechny) in which he distinguished for domestic animals, the beauty of adaptation (to the type of demanded duties), the harmonic beauty, “result of the unity of lines” and thus explaining “longilines” “brevilines” and “mediolines” which are “handsome, each in its own type” and the “conventional beauty dictated by a whim or the fashion of the moment” (thus condemning colourmania and hypertypes).


The Belgian Shepherd Club in Belgium established the first standard for the breed which was published on April 24th in the Royal Saint-Hubert Society’s official magazine, Chasse et Pêche, acclimatation, élevage. The standard described three varieties (long-haired, wire-haired, short-haired) and gave a « Scale of points ». The major part of the work involved was carried out by REUL, a professor of zootechny at the Cureghem School of Veterinary Medicine and “Sanitary veterinarian for the Royal Saint-Hubert Society’s dog shows”. We cannot find any other high level scientist so implicated in the emerging cynology.


The German Poodle Club was founded in Munich (Deutscher Pudel-Klub).

  • The Newfoundland Club for the continent was founded in Munich (Neufundländer- Klub für den Kontinent).
  • The Dutch Great Dane Club, the oldest breed club in the country, was founded in the Netherlands.


Publication in February of the “Book of Points for the Best Known Dog Breeds” (Raspunten Boek van de meest bekende Honden rassen) by Count Henry de BYLANDT (1860-1943), president of the Dutch Kennel Club. This magnificent book, decorated with more than 400 illustrations, describes over 100 breeds in 392 pages. It was the first book on standards on the continent. It was written in Dutch which, sadly, reduced its impact. The standards were those of the clubs of origin, when they existed. The illustrations were the work of artists from all countries and were sometimes drawn by de BYLANDT himself. This masterpiece was re-published in French in 1897 under the title Les races de chiens, and included the standards for over 300 breeds with a “profusion of illustrations”. According to the l’Acclimatation magazine, it was a “monument for dog history”. The third edition, in 1904, was published in four languages: French, English, German and Dutch. The two volumes contain more than 2300 illustrations. The owners of the dogs represented were English, Belgian, French, Dutch, German (such as the famous VON STEPHANITZ, president of the “Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde”), Austrian, Swiss, etc. The addresses of the breed clubs were given along with their presidents and secretaries, some of whom went down in history (but, sadly, not the names of the authors of the standards) and the addresses of the national kennel clubs. As nothing is perfect, it happened that the standard for a given breed differed from one language to another. Already we can see modern tendencies with, for example, multiple English clubs for the Bulldog and, in Germany, a “Continental Bulldog Club” (Kontinentaler Bull-Doggen Club) presided by…. Count of BYLANDT. Do not be mistaken: it was the club which was “continental” and not the Bulldog. The edition included adverts for international breeders and commercial establishments (the “Spratt” dog biscuits for example). Breeds clubs advertised, like the Brussels Griffon Club presided by D. DEMULDER from Brussels and, already, Mr. Charles CRUFT claimed that his exhibition, which was held in London during the second week of February each year, was “the largest and the best”. Among the owners of the dogs represented, the most important were the King and Queen of England, Edward VII and Alexandra, the German Emperor, Wilhelm II, Empress Augusta and Tsar Nicolas II. The dogs attracted thousands of fanciers from all countries and social conditions. One could say that, with the de Bylandt in four languages, the F.C.I. was in the making.

What is especially interesting, from a historical point of view, is that certain of the stud dogs presented for mating had already, as early as 1904, kennel names (prefix or suffix in Belgium) and some breeders as well. We see a German kennel for Boxers with the “von der Passage” kennel name whereas the German Kennel Club did not yet exist. What did exist already in Germany were the clubs, in great number, either regional or by breed. A kennel name was attributed by the French Société Centrale Canine in 1904 to a Mrs. CORDIER from Normandy (Eure): “de la Duquerie” but France had at least three as early as January 1st.,1900.

The affix, “denominative addition preceding (prefix) or following (suffix) the name of a dog”, has been controlled in France since 1907. At the time there were two kinds of affix. The “kennel” affix was added to the pups’ names by the breeder once they were weaned. For a short time (in 1911) it was referred to as the “obligatory affix” because “any person entering a dog in a public event” had to choose a “kennel name”. The fact that it was free was “the inevitable consequence of its obligation” (HOUTART). In some countries the owner could add his “personal kennel name” to his dog even if it was born elsewhere. This practice of “affix of property” could only cause confusion and it was denounced in an article published in Chasse et pêche on July 22, 1911; the author was the famous Belgian dog-man, Baron Albert HOUTART, secretarytreasurer of the F.C.I. until 1935 when he was appointed Governor of Brabant. Vincent d’ANDRIMONT, secretary of the F.C.I. said of him on April 2, 1936: “he who guided the FC.I. since the beginning (…..), the symbol of the whole Federation”.

Publication by the “Société Zoologique de France” of the work of a high-level scientist: Paul DECHAMBRE, student of professor BARON (1852-1908)a man of genius whose theories he exposed. Races canines, classification et pointage (Dog breeds, classification and grading) proposed the classification of dog breeds according to “three characteristics”: “variations in weight and size, profile and overall proportions”. He also presented the “points method” and gave examples of “scales of points”. There was mention of mediolinear or mesomorphic, of brevilinear or brachymorphic, longilinear or dolichomorphic, all Baron’s vocabulary along with “heterometry”, “alloidism” “anamorphism” which we found much later on in some Italian standards under the pen of Professor SOLARO (1879-1968).


Three dog fanciers exhibited their dogs in Munich. It was said afterwards that they had “invented the Boxer” and Munich was called “the cradle of the breed”. The Boxer Klub was founded and the first standard drawn up (WEISSE).

  • Summer 1895 (according to LEE): a “Brussels Griffon”, a “small ladies’ dog”, was exhibited for the first time in England at the Ladies’ Kennel Association according to the Ladies’ Kennel Journal. These ladies were delighted that they were not permitted in bars, thus sparing them the sight of men drinking and sometimes getting intoxicated.
  • There was a court case held in England for cruelty towards a dog. It was a terrier whose ears had been cropped. The two offenders were sent to jail. The Kennel Club took the decision that, after March 31st 1895, no dog with cropped ears could be awarded a prize in any of its shows. LEE informed us that this was already the case for the Irish Terrier since 1889. The Ladies’ Kennel Association, supported by the Prince and Princess of Wales, fought against ear cropping. Dogs with cropped ears were banned from dog shows in 1898 (OLIVER).
  • I would add that the practice of cropping ears is very ancient. In the XVIIth century, LA FONTAINE did not feel sorry for the dogue “having as much ear as my hand” (Le Chien à qui on a coupé les Oreilles – The dog whose ears were cropped) and FÉBUS writes that the gentle Alan had “straight and pointed ears, like we had shaped them”.


January: a meeting was held at La Villette (Paris surburbs) to form a commission which was to determine the characteristics of the two Sheepdog breeds; the long haired Briard (of Brie) and the short haired Beauceron (of Beauce). Together with reputed breeders we note the presence of high level scientists such as Paul DECHAMBRE, professor at the Alfort Veterinary School and MENAUT, General Inspector at the Ministry of Agriculture. The French Sheepdog Club (Club français du chien de berger) was founded and the first standards drawn up. They were published the following year.

  • MEGNIN published Le Dogue de Bordeaux with a first draft of a standard and formed the French Dogue de Bordeaux Committee (Comité du Dogue de Bordeaux français) which was part of the Committee of fanciers of French guard and utility dogs (Comité des Amateurs de chiens de garde et d’utilité français) which he had founded.


The first Boxer, Flocki, was registered in the stud book of the Boxer-Klub (Germany) which was soon to split up.

  • The Dogue de Bordeaux Club was founded in England.
  • Re-edition of Modern Dogs by Rawdon LEE, first published in 1894 (this is proof of the great interest in this work at the time). This wonderful work consists of two volumes for hunting dogs, one dedicated to gun dogs, with, curiously, the “basset Griffon” and the Dachshund. Equally curious is the fact that the volume dedicated to scent hounds and sight hounds includes the Great Dane or “German Boarhound”, that is to say “vautre” (from vertragus or veltrus), a boar hunting dog or “German mastiff” (Great Dane) or “Tiger Mastiff” from the German word getigert ( like a tiger, thus “brindle” but often confused with “pied”, thus harlequin). The volume on terriers counts 458 pages as these dogs were in fashion at the time, especially the “Bull Terrier” like the one that killed sixty rats in two minutes forty seconds and the “Black and Tan terrier”. LEE described 14 main breeds…and many others. He described all these dogs in detail along with many anecdotes. This is how we learn about a dog seller, in Paris, near to the Eiffel Tower, who specialized in finding Bassets griffons if one was willing to pay the price, or that the Tsar of Russia had offered a couple of Borzois to the Prince of Wales around 1865 and a splendid specimen to the Princess of Wales in 1895. LEE added a scale of points to each standard while admitting that he was not completely convinced of their use. He stated, in reference to many breeds, that their aspect had changed a lot over 40 or 50 years, no doubt the result of the prodigious development of the dog world. A sore point: at the end of the chapter on Bull Terriers, LEE refers to a “modern variety” of this dog or rather “of a Bull mastiff and terrier”: the Dogue de Bordeaux of which several specimens had been shown in England in 1895 – 1896 but “there is little chance that it will conquer the British dog world”. In this case LEE did not appear as either a good dog man or a good prophet.


The French Bulldog was recognized by the “Société Centrale” and the first standard was published.

  • Belgian Shepherd dogs with a black coat were shown on March 12. The Belgian Club called them “Groenendael”, which became official along with the Malinois in 1909 (SURGET).
  • The Dutch Shepherd Club (N.H.C.) was founded in the Netherlands; it is the second oldest club in this country.


On April 22nd a Cavalry Captain, Max VON STEPHANITZ (30.12.1864-22.04.1936), founded, in Karlsruhe, the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (German Shepherd Society) along with thirteen fanciers among whom his friend Arthur MEYER. STEPHANITZ was the President and MEYER the Secretary.

On January 15th 1898, VON STEPHANITZ bought a male, Hektor Linksrein, from a breeder in Frankfurt. He changed the name to “Horand von Grafath” (which proves that kennel names already existed in Germany). He exhibited the dog at Karlsruhe on April 22nd, the day the club was founded. Horand was the first German Shepherd registered in the Stud Book which appeared in 1900. He is recognized as the ancestor of these dogs. At the Frankfurt-on-Main show on September 20th 1899, the rules and regulations were adopted during the first General Assembly and the first standard drafted. It was completed on July 28th 1901 in Heidelberg and September 17th 1909 in Cologne (Köln). VON STEPHANITZ had observed that the German Shepherd was not only, and even less and less, a simple shepherd dog – the shepherds (men) becoming more and more scarce – but also a utility dog (Gebrauchshund). The club’s first President, he remained in this function from 1899 to 1935 and was justly known as “the father of the breed”. This did not prevent other clubs from being formed in Germany (two are mentioned in the de Bylandt as soon as 1904). The head office of the Society was transferred from Stuttgart to Munich in 1901. The German Shepherd, managed by a firm hand, was to invade the world. VON STEPHANITZ devoted his life to the breed.

  • August 27th. – the “Dobermann-Pinscher Club Apolda” was created by Otto GOELLER together with a few breeders and fanciers of this handsome breed. The headquarters of the Club were in Apolda, in Thuringia. This dog, now known all over the world, carries the name of Friedrich Louis DOBERMANN (2.1.1834 – 9.6.1894), the first known breeder. This is a rare example in the dog world: a breed carries the name of a breeder who is neither a hunter nor an important person whose efforts to establish a breed can be traced but an ordinary employee in the small town of Apolda known for its bell foundries and knitwear. He was a “jack of all trades”, night watchman, catcher of stray dogs, knacker, tax collector (during which he was accompanied by not too friendly dogs) and, it is said, a good drinker. The truth is that we know very little about him or his breeding kennels. It was the Apolda factory owner, Otto GOELLER who purchased, selected, sold and promoted the breed.